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  Citation statistics : Table of Contents
   2014| January-March  | Volume 3 | Issue 1  
    Online since May 19, 2014

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A comparative study of pre- and post-menopausal breast cancer: Risk factors, presentation, characteristics and management
Aruna Surakasula, Govardhana Chary Nagarjunapu, KV Raghavaiah
January-March 2014, 3(1):12-18
DOI:10.4103/2279-042X.132704  PMID:24991630
Objective: Breast cancer is the most common female cancer worldwide and is the second most commonly diagnosed cancer in Indian women. This study evaluates the differences between pre- and post-menopausal breast cancer women regarding risk factors, nature of disease presentation, tumor characteristics, and management. Methods: This is a prospective observational study, conducted in the Oncology Department of St. Ann's Cancer Hospital, for a period of 6 months from January to August 2012. Data on basic demography, clinical and pathological tumor profile, and treatment details were collected prospectively for each patient based on patient interviews and medical records. Findings: Among 100 female patients taken up for the study, 48 were premenopausal and 52 had reached menopause. The mean age of presentation for breast carcinoma was a decade earlier in these patients compared with western patients. The risk factors for both pre-and post-menopausal breast cancer were found similar other than late menopause in postmenopausal patients. Having dense breast tissue was a predominant risk factor among all women. Late presentation was the common phenomenon in almost all patients. The treatment given was not based on any standard guidelines due to inadequate public health policies. Conclusion: Late stage at presentation of breast cancer is the main problem and possesses a challenge to the health care community. In order to reduce the burden of breast cancer, a multi-sectorial approach and evidence-based strategies aiming at early detection and effective management of the disease are required.
  40 7,694 1,734
Drug-related problems among medical ward patients in Jimma university specialized hospital, Southwest Ethiopia
Bereket Molla Tigabu, Daniel Daba, Belete Habte
January-March 2014, 3(1):1-5
DOI:10.4103/2279-042X.132702  PMID:24991628
Objective: The increasing number of available drugs and drug users, as well as more complex drug regimens led to more side effects and drug interactions and complicates follow-up. The objective of this study was to assess drug-related problems (DRPs) and associated factors in hospitalized patients. Methods: A hospital-based cross-sectional study design was employed. The study was conducted in Jimma University Specialized Hospital, Jimma, located in the south west of Addis Ababa. All patients who were admitted to the medical ward from February 2011 to March 2011 were included in the study. Data on sociodemographic variables, past medical history, drug history, current diagnosis, current medications, vital signs, and relevant laboratory data were collected using semi-structured questionnaire and data collection forms which were filling through patient interview and card review. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 16 for windows. Descriptive statistics, cross-tabs, Chi-square, and logistic regression were utilized. Findings: Out of 257 study participants, 189 (73.5%) had DRPs and a total of 316 DRPs were identified. From the six classes of DRPs studied, 103 (32.6%) cases related to untreated indication or need additional drug therapy, and 49 (15.5%) cases related to high medication dosage. Unnecessary drug therapy in 49 (15.5%) cases, low medication dosage in 44 (13.9%) cases, and ineffective drug therapy in 42 (13.3%) cases were the other classes of problems identified. Noncompliance in 31 (9.8%) cases was the least prevalent DRP. Independent factors which predicted the occurrence of DRPs in the study population were sex, age, polypharmacy, and clinically significant potential drug-drug interactions. The prevalence of DRPs was substantially high (73.5%). Conclusion: Drug-related problems are common among medical ward patients. Indication-related problems, untreated indication and unnecessary drug therapy were the most common types of DRPs among patients of our medical ward.
  17 4,805 1,041
Self-medication among undergraduate medical students in Kuwait with reference to the role of the pharmacist
Maryam Al-Hussaini, Seham Mustafa, Seham Ali
January-March 2014, 3(1):23-27
DOI:10.4103/2279-042X.132706  PMID:24991632
Objective: The practice of self-medication is growing world-wide. It is associated with problems that may lead to potentially life-threatening complications represent a priority to be investigated. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of self-medication among undergraduate medical students and to evaluate the possible role of the pharmacist in self-medication in Kuwait. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was performed, using the questionnaire on a sample of 900 male and female students randomly selected from three health faculties in Kuwait. The prevalence of self-medication, as well as the contribution of pharmacist in self-medication was assessed. In addition, the role of the pharmacist as drug consultant for the students after getting the medication was evaluated. Findings: The overall prevalence of self-medication was 97.8%. The age was significantly inversely proportional to self-medication. There was a significant difference between male and female students in self-medication practice. Headache was the highest health conditions that most frequently motivated self-medication with 90.1% prevalence, followed by 84.7% for dysmenorrhea and 60.3% for constipation. Contribution of the pharmacist as a part of self-medication care was low totally, with the highest rate for cough conditions 40.1%. However, the role of the pharmacist as a drug consultant was more noticeable after obtaining the drug, not before. Around 80.1% of the students request information from the pharmacist about doses, duration of treatments and side-effects. Conclusion: The prevalence of self-medication among undergraduate students in Kuwait is high and there were significant differences for age and gender. The contribution of the pharmacist was low in self-medication, while it was high after getting the drugs for obtaining drug related information. The practice of self-medication is alarming. Improved awareness about the role of pharmacist as a drug consultant for careful and cautious use of medicines available for self-medication would be strongly recommended.
  12 5,358 885
Stability of antibacterial activity of Chlorhexidine and Doxycycline in bovine root dentine
Abbas Ali Khademi, Marjan Saleh, Masoud Khabiri, Sanaz Jahadi
January-March 2014, 3(1):19-22
DOI:10.4103/2279-042X.132705  PMID:24991631
Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the substantivity of chlorhexidine (CHX) and doxycycline bond to the dentin in diffusion disk method. Methods: A total of 92 dentin disks were prepared from Bovine's teeth root. After removing cementum and standardizing disks in weight and outer diameter, they were irrigated with sodium hypochlorite 2.5%, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid 17% and sterile saline and sterilled in autoclave. Then, the first group (n = 36) were irrigated with chlrohexine 2% and the second group (n = 36) with doxycycline 100 mg/mL, each for a period of 10 min. The third group (n = 20) was considered as the control group. Samples were divided into four subgroups, which after 1 day, 3, 6, and 12 weeks were incubated in plates containing Muller Hinton agar broth and Enterococcus faecalis for a period of 48 h at 37°C temperature; then the diameter of the zone of inhibition was measured. The antimicrobial effect of irrigating solutions without binding to the dentin was also studied using the plate well method. One-way and univariate variance tests as well as Post-hoc Tukey were used for data analyses. Findings: The diameter of the zone of inhibition of doxycycline group was significantly more than the CHX group from the beginning to the 3 rd week (P < 0.005). After 3 rd week, mean diameter in doxycycline group declined as compared with the CHX group up to 12 th week (P < 0.005). The difference between means in two groups was not significant in the 3 rd week (P = 0.87). Conclusion: The results of this study show that CHX and doxycycline show antibacterial activity for 12 weeks; although after 3 rd week, the substantivity of CHX was significantly greater than doxycycline. Both of these irrigants can be used in other pharmacological and medical fields whenever a long-lasting antibacterial action is needed.
  6 4,211 439
Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing bacteria causing nosocomial urinary tract infections in an Iranian referral teaching hospital
Rasool Soltani, Mohsen Ehsanpoor, Farzin Khorvash, Dariush Shokri
January-March 2014, 3(1):6-11
DOI:10.4103/2279-042X.132703  PMID:24991629
Objective: Gram-negative bacilli are the most important cause of nosocomial urinary tract infections (UTIs). The production of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) enzymes is a common mechanism of resistance among these bacteria. The aim of this study was to determine the rate of ESBL producing Gram-negative bacteria causing nosocomial UTI in a referral hospital as well as their susceptibility pattern to the most commonly used antibiotics. Methods: In a prospective cross-sectional study performed over a 6-month period, urinary specimens obtained from hospitalized patients with documented culture-proved nosocomial UTI (age range of 1-87 years). Isolated aerobic Gram-negative bacteria underwent further microbiologic tests for detection of ESBL, as well as antimicrobial susceptibility test using Kirby-Bauer (disk diffusion) and E-test methods. Findings: During the study period, 213 urine samples were detected to have growth of Gram-negative organism. Escherichia coli was the most frequently isolated organism (61%). ESBL was detected in 102 isolates including 38.5% of E. coli, 39.5% of Klebsiella pneumonia, 88.5% of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and 100% of Acinetobacter baumannii strains. Imipenem and meropenem were the most effective antibiotics on E. coli and K. pneumoniae strains. P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii strains showed high resistance to all tested antibiotics. Conclusion: Large numbers of Gram-negative bacteria causing nosocomial UTIs produce ESBL with most being multidrug-resistant. Therefore, routine ESBL detection testing and subsequent antibiogram with disk diffusion method could be useful to determine the best treatment options for UTI.
  6 4,099 593
A prospective study to compare the clinical efficacy of Tolvaptan with 3% hypertonic saline solution in hospitalized patients having hyponatremia
Jobin Kunjumon Vilapurathu, S. Rajarajan
January-March 2014, 3(1):34-36
DOI:10.4103/2279-042X.132710  PMID:24991634
Objective: Hyponatremia is one of the most common electrolyte abnormalities in hospitalized patients. The treatment of hyponatremia is controversial as rapid correction of serum sodium can give rise to neurologic disorder and at the same time if not corrected timely, it can lead to brain damage. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of Tolvaptan with 3% hypertonic saline solution for the management of hyponatremia in hospitalized patients. Methods: In this prospective observational study, data of 60 hospitalized patients having hyponatremia from February 2013 to July 2013 were collected and analyzed. Patients either received oral Tolvaptan or intravenous infusion of 3% hypertonic saline solution. The serum sodium concentration before administration of treatment and 24 h and 48 h after the administration of the drugs were recorded and analyzed. Data were analyzed using GraphPad Software, by Student's paired t-test and one-way analysis of Variance (ANOVA). Findings: Tolvaptan and 3% hypertonic saline solution had significant effects in raising serum sodium level in hyponatremic patients at both 24 h and 48 h (P < 0.0001). This increase was about 8.030 ± 0.6507 mEq/L and 12.33 ± 0.6489 mEq/L for 3% hypertonic saline and about 5.111 ± 0.6616 mEq/L and 10.11 ± 0.6230 mEq/L for Tolvaptan, after 24 h and 48 h, respectively. Conclusion: Both drugs had significant effects in raising serum sodium level in hyponatremic patients; however administration of 3% hypertonic saline solution had a slightly superior efficacy in raising the serum sodium concentration at both 24 h and 48 h periods in Hyponatremic patients compared with oral Tolvaptan.
  4 3,044 576
Evaluation of in vivo effects of Oxytocin on coagulation of parturient during cesarean delivery by thromboelastography
Mohammad Golparvar, Mehdi Esterabi, Reihanak Talakoub, Hamid Hajigholam Saryazdi
January-March 2014, 3(1):28-33
DOI:10.4103/2279-042X.132707  PMID:24991633
Objective: Oxytocin routinely used as an uterotonic drug in cesarean delivery. Clothing problems, adverse effects on fibrinogen and bleeding were presented as side effects of oxytocin. In in vivo investigation, modest hypercoagulable state was suggested as a side effect for infusion of oxytocin in parturients. In this study, effects of two different infusion rates of oxytocin on coagulation of parturient were evaluated during cesarean delivery. Methods: In a randomized double-blinded clinical trial, 84 healthy parturient in two equal groups took oxytocin infusion with the rate of 15 IU/h (Group A) or 30 IU/h (Group B), after the umbilical cord clamping. Coagulation status measured 30 min after beginning of infusion by thromboelastography. Data were analyzed by χ2 , paired sample test and ANOVA considering as significant at P < 0.05. Findings: The mean (standard deviation) of variables in Groups A and B were 2.4024 (0.86) and 2.0429 (0.68) for K (kinetics of clot development), 55.4429 (11.30) and 60.7595 (10.41) for α (speed of clot strengthening) and 59.779 (19.15) and 70.61 (11.30) for maximum amplitude (maximum clot strength), respectively. The P values for these variables were 0.036, 0.028 and <0.001, respectively; these changes are consistent with increasing coagulability. Other measures did not have significant differences. Conclusion: This in vivo investigation clarified that increasing infusion rate of oxytocin to 30 IU/h can augment coagulability in term parturients.
  2 3,629 376