Home Print this page Email this page Small font size Default font size Increase font size
Users Online: 318
Home About us Editorial board Search Ahead of print Current issue Archives Submit article Instructions Contacts Login 
Year : 2021  |  Volume : 10  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 144-148

A safety evaluation of midazolam use for nasogastric tube placement

Department of Surgery, Division of Emergency Medicine, University of Vermont College of Medicine, Burlington, VT, USA

Correspondence Address:
Ms. Jenna B Wells
Department of Surgery, Division of Emergency Medicine, University of Vermont College of Medicine, Burlington, VT
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jrpp.jrpp_78_21

Rights and Permissions

Objective: Nasogastric tube (NGT) insertion is one of the most painful procedures in the emergency department (ED). A recent study determined that giving intravenous (IV) midazolam before NGT insertion decreased patients' pain; however, the sample size was insufficient to draw the conclusions on safety. We conducted a retrospective chart review of patients who received IV midazolam for NGT insertion to determine the frequency of adverse events. Methods: All patients treated at a Level 1 trauma center ED from June 2016 to June 2019 who received IV midazolam for NGT insertion were included. The medical records were screened for the following serious adverse events: hypoxia, respiratory suppression, excessive somnolence/sedation, hemodynamic instability, epistaxis, vomiting, and choking. Adverse events, patient demographics, chief complaint, diagnosis, disposition, number of midazolam administrations, dose per administration, and total dose were recorded for the analysis. Findings: Three out of 159 participants (2%) were identified as having an adverse event. In two cases, the adverse event was hypoxia, which was corrected with the administration of supplemental oxygen through nasal cannula. The third adverse event was somnolence noted in a patient who was also hypotensive and in atrial fibrillation around the time of midazolam administration. Conclusion: It is safe to premedicate patients with midazolam before NGT insertions. Patients with borderline oxygen saturation and those receiving opioid analgesics may warrant dose titration with close vital sign monitoring.

Print this article     Email this article
 Next article
 Previous article
 Table of Contents

 Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
 Citation Manager
 Access Statistics
 Reader Comments
 Email Alert *
 Add to My List *
 * Requires registration (Free)

 Article Access Statistics
    PDF Downloaded155    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal